The Controversy Over Animal Glue in Piano Construction

Animal glue has a long-standing tradition in the craftsmanship of pianos. For centuries, craftsmen have favored it for its unparalleled ability to adhere woods and other materials in a manner that promotes resonance and longevity. Made from collagen derived primarily from the hides and bones of animals, notably cattle and rabbits, it has played a significant role in the assembly of soundboards, setting of bridges, and attachment of pinblocks, among other key components of the piano.

In light of recent shifts towards ethical consumption and a growing focus on animal rights, however, there’s been a surge in controversy around the use of animal glue in piano construction. This has led to a divide among both manufacturers and consumers.

Advantages of Animal Glue in Piano Construction

Sound and Resonance

Among the primary reasons for the traditional use of animal glue in piano crafting is its impact on sound quality. This adhesive possesses unique properties that allow for effective energy transfer. By ensuring that the different components of the piano are bound together without impeding the natural vibrations of the wood, animal glue enhances the resonance and overall tonal quality of the instrument.


Another distinct advantage is the reversibility of animal glue. This means that the components of the piano can be easily taken apart without causing damage, facilitating repairs and restoration. For example, if a soundboard or bridge requires replacement, the use of animal glue allows for easier disassembly, ensuring that these components can be removed with minimal risk.

Concerns About Animal Glue

Ethical Implications

The primary concern surrounding the use of animal glue is its source. As the demand for ethical and cruelty-free products grows, many consumers and activists have begun to scrutinize the use of animal-derived products in various industries, including musical instrument production. Concerns arise from the farming and processing of animals to obtain the collagen necessary for the adhesive.

Environmental Impact

Beyond the ethical concerns of animal welfare, there’s also the environmental impact to consider. The farming of animals, especially cattle, has been associated with greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation, and resource consumption. Thus, the production of animal glue indirectly contributes to these environmental issues.

Alternatives to Animal Glue

With the growing controversy, several piano manufacturers have started exploring and employing alternatives to animal glue.

Synthetic Adhesives

Many synthetic adhesives offer strong bonding capacities and can replicate some of the characteristics that make animal glue desirable. For instance, aliphatic resin emulsion, commonly referred to as “yellow glue”, is one such alternative. It offers strong bonding, dries clear, and is easier to work with due to its longer open time. However, some purists argue that synthetic glues may impact the tonal qualities of the instrument, as they don’t possess the same acoustic properties as animal glue.

Plant-based Adhesives

Another emerging option is plant-based adhesives. Derived from sources such as soy or starch, these glues offer a more sustainable and ethical choice. Though they have made significant strides in recent years, some challenges remain in terms of durability and strength when compared to both animal and certain synthetic adhesives.

The Way Forward: A Balanced Perspective

While the use of animal glue has historical and acoustic justifications, the ethical and environmental implications are undeniable. Manufacturers and restorers, therefore, face a choice: hold onto tradition or move towards more modern, sustainable, and ethical alternatives.

It’s essential to recognize that the construction of a piano involves a delicate balance of craftsmanship, acoustics, and ethics. In an ideal world, one would hope for the development of an adhesive that combines the acoustic benefits of animal glue with the ethical benefits of plant-based or synthetic alternatives. Until such a solution emerges, manufacturers, restorers, and consumers alike will need to prioritize based on their individual values while remaining informed and respectful of differing perspectives.

In the interim, transparency is key. Piano buyers should be informed about the materials used in the construction of their instrument, allowing them to make a purchase that aligns with their values, be it sound quality, tradition, ethics, or a combination thereof.

In conclusion, the controversy over animal glue in piano construction is not a black and white issue. It’s a complex interplay of history, acoustics, ethics, and environmental considerations. Only through open dialogue, continued research, and respect for diverse viewpoints can the industry navigate this sensitive topic.

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