Synchronizing MIDI Devices: A Practical Guide

MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) has been a crucial tool in music production for decades. With the constant introduction of new devices, synchronization remains a challenge. Proper synchronization is vital for effective communication between devices, enhancing musical outcomes.

Understanding MIDI Synchronization

MIDI Clock and Timing

MIDI Clock is responsible for ensuring that MIDI devices play in time. It sends out 24 clock signals for every quarter note. Devices, especially sequencers or drum machines, utilize these signals to stay in sync with each other.

For example, consider two drum machines. If one machine is set as the master, sending out MIDI clock signals, the second machine—acting as the slave—will use these signals to synchronize its tempo to the master.

Start, Stop, and Continue Commands

MIDI also incorporates commands that dictate playback behaviors:

  • Start: Initiates the playback from the beginning.
  • Stop: Halts the playback.
  • Continue: Resumes the playback from where it stopped.

Song Position Pointer

This is a MIDI message that defines where a song should begin playing. It’s beneficial when you’re synchronizing sequencers that might have different song lengths or when you want devices to start playback from a specific location within the sequence.

Setting Up MIDI Synchronization

Now, let’s delve into the practical aspect of synchronizing MIDI devices.

Step 1: Designate Your Master Device

The master device is the primary source of MIDI clock signals. All other devices will synchronize to the master. This is typically a sequencer or a drum machine, but can also be a DAW (Digital Audio Workstation) or even a dedicated MIDI clock generator.

Example: In a live setup, where a band uses a drum machine and a synthesizer sequencer, the drum machine might be set as the master device because it provides the rhythmic foundation. The synthesizer sequencer, as the slave device, would then follow the drum machine’s tempo.

Step 2: Connect Your Devices

Connect the MIDI OUT port of the master device to the MIDI IN port of the slave device. If you’re working with multiple devices, daisy-chaining them in series can be effective. However, be wary of adding too many devices in one chain as signal degradation can occur.

Step 3: Configure Slave Devices

On every slave device, enable the appropriate MIDI sync setting (names might vary depending on the device). Common settings include:

  • Internal: The device uses its internal clock and doesn’t listen to external clock signals.
  • External: The device listens for an external MIDI clock and synchronizes to it.
  • Auto: The device will use its internal clock if no external signals are present but will switch to an external clock when detected.

Ensure that all slave devices are set to either ‘External’ or ‘Auto’.

Step 4: Test the Setup

Press the start command on the master device. All slave devices should begin playing in sync. If not, recheck connections and settings.

Addressing Common MIDI Synchronization Issues

While the process can seem straightforward, you may encounter some challenges. Here are a few common problems and solutions:

1. Timing Drift

Issue: Slave devices gradually go out of sync over time.

Solution: This can often be due to cable quality or excessive daisy-chaining. Use high-quality MIDI cables and consider using a MIDI thru box if you’re connecting multiple devices.

2. Inconsistent Start Times

Issue: Devices don’t start playback simultaneously.

Solution: Ensure that all devices are correctly interpreting the Start and Song Position Pointer commands. Some devices may have a slight delay in their response to these commands. Refer to the device manual or manufacturer support for device-specific nuances.

3. Missing Clock Signals

Issue: Slave devices occasionally skip beats or sequences.

Solution: This might be due to interference or data congestion, especially if other non-clock MIDI data (like note information) is being sent through the same chain. Dedicate one MIDI connection exclusively for clock signals if possible.

Advanced Synchronization: MIDI Time Code (MTC)

While MIDI Clock is suitable for many situations, sometimes you need a more sophisticated synchronization method. This is where MIDI Time Code (MTC) comes into play. MTC embeds real-time clock data into the MIDI data stream, allowing for frame-accurate synchronization, particularly valuable in film scoring or multimedia projects.

Example: A film composer might use MTC to ensure that their DAW remains perfectly synced with video playback software, ensuring that musical cues align perfectly with on-screen action.


Achieving a seamless synchronization between your MIDI devices is both an art and a science. By understanding the underlying principles, carefully setting up your devices, and addressing common issues, you can ensure a cohesive musical experience. As with many aspects of music production, patience, practice, and a bit of troubleshooting can go a long way. Happy synchronizing!

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