MIDI Over Bluetooth + Python: Exploring Wireless Potential

The evolution of music technology has consistently been characterized by the pursuit of simplicity and flexibility. From the inception of the Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) in 1983, there has been a significant shift towards making music production more accessible. Now, with the advent of wireless technology, MIDI data transmission is further simplified. In this article, we’ll delve into the nuances of transmitting MIDI over Bluetooth and how Python can play a pivotal role in harnessing this wireless potential.

A Brief Overview of MIDI

MIDI, or Musical Instrument Digital Interface, is a protocol that enables electronic musical instruments, computers, and other devices to communicate with one another. Unlike audio signals which transmit actual sounds, MIDI transmits “notes” or instructions about musical notation, pitch, velocity, and control signals for parameters such as volume, vibrato, and panning.

Why Go Wireless?

Traditionally, MIDI devices were interconnected using a DIN cable. However, cables can be cumbersome, limiting mobility and leading to clutter. Wireless MIDI offers the promise of reduced latency, portability, and flexible setups, especially beneficial in live performance contexts or where space is a constraint.

Bluetooth as a MIDI Carrier

Bluetooth, as a universal wireless standard, provides a viable platform for MIDI transmission. With its low latency and ubiquitous presence in modern devices, Bluetooth is poised as a suitable medium for MIDI communications.

The MIDI Over Bluetooth Protocol

The “MIDI over Bluetooth Low Energy” protocol, often abbreviated as “BLE MIDI,” is a technology that enables MIDI information to be sent and received wirelessly over Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) connections. BLE provides advantages in terms of power consumption and latency, making it ideal for MIDI communication.

Bluetooth MIDI: Latency Concerns

Latency is often termed as the “silent killer” in audio and music technology. It’s the time difference between a command being sent and its execution, or in musical terms, pressing a key on a MIDI keyboard and hearing the corresponding sound. When latency is low, the user experience feels immediate and natural. On the other hand, noticeable latency can be distracting and can hinder performance.

Wireless communication inherently introduces some latency due to transmission time, error-checking and correction. MIDI over Bluetooth uses the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) protocol. BLE is designed for short bursts of long-range radio connections, making it a reasonable choice for MIDI, which requires minimal data bandwidth.

For situations where latency is critical:

  • Opt for Latest Technology: Newer devices with the latest BLE versions often perform better.
  • Limit Active Bluetooth Devices: Reduce the number of active Bluetooth devices in the vicinity to minimize interference.
  • Direct Line of Sight: Ensure that there’s a clear line of sight between the sender and receiver to reduce transmission interruptions.

Communicating with Wireless MIDI devices using mido

Wireless MIDI devices provide flexibility and convenience, but when it comes to interacting with them programmatically, there are two primary methodologies: high-level abstraction and raw communication. Here’s a breakdown of these two methods, using libraries like mido for the former and pybluez for the latter.

Choosing between high-level abstraction and raw communication depends on the specific needs of your project and your comfort level with the involved technologies. If you require precise control and deep insights into data transmission, pybluez and raw communication might be the way to go. On the other hand, if your primary focus is MIDI interaction with minimal fuss, mido and its high-level abstraction would be more suitable. Like many decisions in programming, it boils down to a balance between control and convenience.

1. High-Level Abstraction Libraries like mido


  • Ease of Use: High-level libraries abstract away the complexities, making MIDI communication more accessible and user-friendly. This is especially beneficial for those who are primarily interested in MIDI and not Bluetooth’s intricacies.
  • Consistency: Libraries like mido offer a uniform approach irrespective of the device’s connection method (wired or wireless).
  • Cross-Platform Compatibility: High-level libraries are often designed to work seamlessly across multiple platforms, ensuring that your code is portable.
  • Less Room for Error: With abstraction, many potential pitfalls of direct communication are handled internally by the library, reducing the likelihood of mistakes.


  • Lesser Control: By relying on abstraction, you relinquish some control over data transmission’s finer details.
  • Potential Overhead: While usually minimal, there’s some overhead involved due to the abstraction layer. This might not be ideal for extremely latency-sensitive applications.
  • Dependency on Library Maintenance: Your application’s functionality might be tied to the library’s updates or bug fixes. If the library becomes deprecated or isn’t updated regularly, it can pose challenges.

2. Raw Communication via Libraries like pybluez


  • Granular Control: Raw communication offers you direct control over the data packets, enabling intricate customizations and specific optimizations tailored to your needs.
  • Flexibility with Protocols: Directly interfacing with the Bluetooth stack, you’re not limited solely to MIDI messages and can work with other data types and protocols.
  • Deep Insights: Debugging or monitoring at the packet level provides an understanding of the transmission’s intricacies.


  • Complexity: This method demands a deep understanding of Bluetooth protocols and MIDI messaging. It can be overwhelming, especially for newcomers.
  • More Code, More Effort: Direct communication usually requires more lines of code, increasing the chances of bugs or inefficiencies.
  • Limited Portability: Raw libraries might be platform-specific or might behave differently across platforms, which can lead to compatibility issues.

Practical Example: High-Level Code for Wireless MIDI Using mido

Setup and Dependencies

Install the necessary Python libraries:

pip install mido python-rtmidi

Listing MIDI Ports

With the libraries installed, the first step is to list available MIDI ports:

import mido

available_ports = mido.get_input_names()

Connecting to a Bluetooth MIDI Device

Once you’ve identified the Bluetooth MIDI device from the list, you can connect to it:

in_port = mido.open_input('Your_Bluetooth_MIDI_Device_Name')

Receiving and Processing MIDI Messages

With the port open, Python can be set up to listen to incoming messages and process them as needed:

for msg in in_port:

Sending MIDI Messages

Similarly, sending messages (e.g., a note on) can be achieved effortlessly:

out_port = mido.open_output('Your_Bluetooth_MIDI_Device_Name')
out_port.send(mido.Message('note_on', note=60, velocity=64))

This example, while basic, underscores Python’s flexibility in interfacing with Bluetooth MIDI devices. Whether you’re building a custom software synthesizer or a novel musical interface, Python provides the tools necessary.

Practical Example: Raw Communication Code for Wireless MIDI Using pybluez

Before we begin, make sure you’ve installed the pybluez library:

pip install pybluez

Discover Bluetooth Devices

import bluetooth

nearby_devices = bluetooth.discover_devices(duration=8, lookup_names=True, lookup_class=True, device_id=-1, paired_only=False)

print("Found {} devices.".format(len(nearby_devices)))

for addr, name, class_ in nearby_devices:
    print("  {} - {}".format(addr, name))

Connect to the MIDI Device

Once you’ve identified your MIDI device’s address from the list, you can attempt to connect to it.

sock = bluetooth.BluetoothSocket(bluetooth.RFCOMM)
midi_device_address = "XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX"  # replace with your device's address
sock.connect((midi_device_address, 1))

Send a Simple MIDI Message

MIDI messages have a specific format. For this example, let’s send a basic “note_on” message for note C4 (MIDI note 60) with a velocity of 64.

NOTE_ON = 0x90
NOTE_OFF = 0x80
C4 = 60

message = bytearray([NOTE_ON, C4, VELOCITY])

Receive MIDI Messages

To read incoming MIDI data, use the recv method.

data = sock.recv(1024)

Closing the Connection

Always remember to close the connection once you’re done.



  • The example above is a simplification. In a real-world application, you’d need to implement proper error handling, manage connections more gracefully, and decode/encode more complex MIDI messages.
  • MIDI over Bluetooth might utilize different protocols or profiles, so not all MIDI devices will be accessible simply via an RFCOMM socket. The example assumes the device in question communicates over RFCOMM.
  • MIDI messages can be more complex, especially for controllers sending Control Change (CC), Program Change, or System Exclusive messages. You’d need to properly format your messages for these cases.
  • Using raw methods like pybluez requires a deep dive into both MIDI and Bluetooth documentation to handle various scenarios and edge cases.

This example demonstrates the fundamentals, but the complexity of real-world usage can be significantly higher. However, if you need granular control or have unique requirements, this method provides the flexibility you might need.


MIDI over Bluetooth, with its potential for simplicity and flexibility, stands as a testament to the ongoing evolution of music technology. Python, with its vast libraries and ease of use, provides the ideal platform for tapping into this potential, making the creation, modification, and transmission of music more intuitive and boundless.

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