Crafting MIDI-Driven Visuals and Light Shows with Python

MIDI, or the Musical Instrument Digital Interface, is a protocol established in the 1980s, and it has become a fundamental tool for creating and playing digital music. While MIDI is mainly associated with audio applications, it’s equally potent for driving visual effects, including light shows. In this article, we’ll explore how Python can be used to transform MIDI signals into captivating visuals.

MIDI and its Potential for Visuals

MIDI is a communication protocol that allows musical instruments, computers, and other hardware to share information. Rather than transmitting actual audio signals, MIDI sends messages detailing actions to be taken, such as note-on/note-off commands or changes in modulation.

MIDI Messages

MIDI messages are sequences of numbers that specify musical actions. For instance:

  • Note-on and note-off messages: These messages indicate when a note starts and stops. They come with two values: the note number (pitch) and velocity (how hard the note is hit).
  • Control Change (CC) messages: These messages control different parameters such as volume, modulation, or sustain.

Understanding these messages is crucial since they will form the foundation for our visuals.

Python and MIDI

Python is a versatile language that offers various libraries and tools for working with MIDI. mido and python-rtmidi are two such popular libraries, which when combined, provide a comprehensive suite for MIDI handling.

Setting Up

To start working with MIDI in Python:

  1. Install the required libraries:
   pip install mido python-rtmidi
  1. Establish a connection with your MIDI device.

Parsing MIDI Messages with Python

Once the connection is set up, you can read MIDI messages in real-time or from a pre-recorded MIDI file.

import mido
from mido import MidiFile

mid = MidiFile('example.mid')

for msg in

This script will print out all the MIDI messages as they’re read from the file.

Linking MIDI Messages to Visuals

The key is to interpret MIDI data and translate it into meaningful visual or light cues.

Using MIDI Notes for Visuals

One simple approach is to map different MIDI notes to different colors. For instance, you might map the note C to red, D to orange, and so on.

def note_to_color(note):
    COLORS = {
        60: 'red',    # C
        62: 'orange', # D
        # ... and so on
    return COLORS.get(note, 'black')

Control Change (CC) Messages and Dynamics

CC messages can be used to alter the intensity or characteristics of the visuals. For example, a CC message that corresponds to volume can modify the brightness of a light or the opacity of a visual element.

Rendering Visuals with Python

Python boasts a plethora of libraries for rendering graphics. One such tool is pygame, which is tailored for game development but equally effective for visual applications.

Creating a Simple Light Show with Pygame

  1. Install pygame:
   pip install pygame
  1. Create a visual response to MIDI messages:
import pygame
import mido

# Pygame setup
screen = pygame.display.set_mode((800, 600))

# MIDI setup
mid = MidiFile('example.mid')

def note_to_color(note):
    # ... as defined earlier ...

for msg in
    if msg.type == 'note_on':
        color = note_to_color(msg.note)

The above code will change the screen color corresponding to each played note.

Advanced Visual Effects

Mapping notes to colors is a start, but there are numerous possibilities for intricate visuals.

Layered Graphics

Instead of a single color, consider using images or shapes that correspond to MIDI events. For instance, a kick drum hit might generate a circle pulse on screen.

Animation and Transitions

Rather than abrupt changes, transitions can be incorporated between visual states. This can be achieved using libraries like pygame or manim (for mathematical animations).

Real-time Interactivity

Using MIDI controllers, artists can alter visuals in real-time, crafting a more dynamic experience. Buttons or sliders on a MIDI controller might speed up visuals, change patterns, or introduce new graphical elements.


The intersection of MIDI and visual artistry offers boundless creative avenues. By harnessing the power of Python and its associated libraries, both seasoned and budding artists can elevate their performances, crafting experiences that captivate both the ears and eyes.

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